ICT as a Tool for Youth Empowerment
The clamor for youth empowerment is intensified considering the global economic meltdown and the ravaging economic recession biting hard on developing countries, especially African countries. The mass retrenchment of workers by multi-national companies, private and public sectors, and supposedly nonexistent or perhaps, inadequate white-cola jobs make youth empowerment more needed now than ever. Youth empowerment is indeed the way to go. But such empowerment has to be Information and Communication Technology (ICT) driven.
ICT as the equipment used for capturing, processing, storing, transmitting and accessing information which has offered Educators and Leaners from all walks of life tremendous opportunities in information handling and utilization. Information and communication Technologies are basically driven from two core technologies — information and communication.
Communication and access to information are the hallmark of ICT which guarantees critical awareness. Critical awareness entails the process of providing youth with the information and resources necessary for analyzing issues that affect their lives and environment as well as strategize on ways to act as change agents in their communities. Empowerment connotes economic opportunities. Well-meaning global leaders today clamour for economic empowerment of the youths; youths themselves desire it.
Journal of Public Administration and Social Welfare Research Vol. 2 No.1 2017
Alexander A. Onwumere, PhD School of General Studies Imo State Polytechnic, Umuagow
TRAFFICKING IN NIGERIA
Despite the fact that the incidents of trafficking in children in Nigeria had been going on as far back as the 60s, the public recognition and focus on the issue however heightened only since the mid 90s. The recent awareness of trafficking in Nigeria resulted from the publicity generated by the deportation of trafficked persons for prostitution to Europe and the Middle East, which started in 1994.
The increasing number of deportees who were trafficking victims who engaged in prostitution influenced the equation of trafficking with prostitution to the neglect of trafficking for other forms of labour in Nigeria. A presenter once erroneously defined “trafficking in women” as “ the movement of young girls of ages 13-18 from one country to another by road, Rail Sea or air for the sole purpose prostitution.”
This definition, though incomplete, recognizes that the majority of trafficked victims for prostitution are children below the age of 18. However, it fails to recognize trafficking for other forms of labour. In Nigeria, women and children, especially the girl-children, are victims of trafficking for various forms of labour including prostitution and sexual exploitation. Studies show that in Nigeria children form the largest victims of trafficking both internally and externally.
Types of trafficking
In reality Nigeria experiences internal and external trafficking of children. Internal trafficking of children takes the form of recruitment and transportation of children from the rural areas to the urban and city centres for different forms of labour under exploitative conditions. External trafficking of children is trafficking of children across national borders for different forms of labour also under exploitative and slave -like conditions.
Forms, routes and conditions for external trafficking.
Nigeria constitutes a recruitment, transit and destination centre for external trafficking of women and children. Like the internal trafficking, children also constitute the majority of the victims of external trafficking.
As a recruitment centre, Nigerian children are recruited predominantly from South Eastern States such as Akwa Ibom, and Cross Rivers and trafficked mostly by sea to Gabon, Cameroon and Guinea to work on farm plantations. Children are also recruited from Shaki in Oyo State and trafficked to Guinea, Mali and Cote Ivoire to work as hawkers and domestic servants.
Not much research has been conducted on the forms of recruitment of this type of trafficking but there is evidence that those recruited are children from poor family background and mostly from rural communities. The mode of transportation usually by sea is mostly under deplorable conditions “only comparable to the 18th century trans- Saharan slave trade”.
Nigerian children are also trafficked to European Countries and the Middle East for prostitution and sexual exploitation. The trend for the trafficking of Nigerians to European countries, especially Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, Spain and more recently England started manifesting in the 80s but reached alarming proportions towards the mid and latter part of the 90s up until now.
Even without specific data, the few studies conducted show that thousands of Nigerian women and children have been trafficked to Europe, particularly Italy. According to the Nigerian Ambassador to Italy, a survey indicates that over 10,000 Nigerians are engaged in prostitution in Italy. This large number is buttressed by the declaration of the then Italian Ambassador to Nigeria that Nigerian girls constitute 60% of all prostitutes in the sex trade in Italy.
Research findings also show that most of the trafficked victims for prostitution are children at the time of travel. The recruitment of girls for trafficking en route to Europe are predominantly from Edo and Delta states. There are also records of recruitments from other states such as Imo, Enugu, Ogun, Anambra and Akwa-Ibom. For the Middle East, particularly Saudi Arabia, recruitment of girls is predominantly from Northern Nigeria, especially Kano, Kwara and Kaduna States.
The usual bait for luring the Nigerian girls into trafficking for prostitution is a false promise of employment to earn the much valued foreign exchange, vocational training, or marriage. Those trafficked to Saudi Arabia are usually offered an opportunity to perform the holy pilgrimage to Mecca, an Islamic injunction and an opportunity for importation of high profit items. With recent publicity, some awareness has been created as to the true nature of the employment which is prostitution. In spite of this information, many children still fall prey to traffickers through the active connivance of family members who coerce the children into trafficking.
With heightened demand for young girls in the global sex trade came the increase in the recruitment of children for external trafficking. Girls between the ages of 12-18 are recruited and some of them medically propped up to look older and meet the required statistics of “young, slim and attractive”.
Due to many factors including the escalating level of poverty, lack of viable opportunities, fallen family values, the attraction to earn foreign exchange which is more valuable than the local currency and the desire to get rich quick, many parents and guardians will use any means to force their children into the trafficking ring. They make sacrifices such as the sale of their properties to make N20000-N40000 (an equivalent of about $200-400 US dollars) deposits to traffickers on behalf of their children.
After recruitment the victim and her family member are subjected to oaths of secrecy before traditional shrines. The victim’s body parts like pubic hairs; blood, fingernails and personal items such as pants are collected and used for the oath taking rituals. This oath taking ritual has a multi-purpose effect on the victims, some of which are “to instill fear of terrible reprisals such as death or madness if the oaths are broken by the victim;” “to attract customers for the victims” and “to protect the trafficked victims against HIV/AIDS diseases.” To further perfect the transaction, the traffickers or their agents engage the services of lawyers to draw up a tripartite agreement referred to as a “Friendly Agreement”.
The routes taken to the various destinations are dynamic and are as varied as the different syndicated gangs of traffickers. Some of the most common routes are from Nigeria through the neighbouring countries of Republics of Benin and Togo to Ghana or Mali where orientation and change of identities are conducted for those to travel by air. Another route is through North African countries like Morocco or Libya and through the Suez Canal to Britain and other parts of Europe. In recent times there has been an increase in young girls claiming asylum in Britain but who are however lured into trafficking for prostitution in Europe. The porous borders in West Africa facilitated by the ECOWAS Treaty,
allows easy passage for the trafficking of women and children from Nigeria and neighbouring countries using Nigeria either as recruitment as well as transit country to Europe.On arrival at destinations in Europe or the Middle East, the personal belongings of the trafficked children, including travel documents, are confiscated and they are forced into prostitution and repayment bonds of amounts raging between $30000-$50000 U.S. Dollars. This repayment schedule sometimes necessitates the children engaging in unprotected sex with 10-20 partners in a day. An average repayment lasts from 3-5 years, but some victims, especially those trafficked to Saudi Arabia never get freedom from the bondage. The Madams may terminate the transaction prematurely to her benefit by alerting the European Authorities that the victim is an illegal immigrant, if the victims fall ill or contracts HIV/AIDS, or if the victim has almost completed the repayment schedule.
In addition, the trafficked victims are subjected to physical abuse resulting in serious bodily harm or death by their traffickers or Madams. Between the 1994 and 1998 about 116 Nigerian Prostitutes were reported dead in Italy from the hands of their customers or through the Madams.
Since 1994 there has been an increase in the massive deportation victims of trafficking for prostitution. According to an unofficial police report, over 1000 Nigerian women and girls have been deported from Europe between January and April 2001 and over 2000 from Saudi Arabia. The deportation has generated a great deal of publicity, which has prompted national attention to the issue. Because of this, reference to trafficking appears to be limited to trafficking for prostitution while ignoring the almost age-old trafficking for other forms of labour.
As far back as the 1960s, Nigeria has been the destination country of mostly children from neighbouring Republics of Benin, Togo and Ghana who are forced into domestic service. These children are between 5 and 18 years old and are recruited by traffickers most times with the consent of their parents and guardians and sometimes through kidnapping. Upon arrival in Nigerian urban centres in the South West such as Lagos and Abeokuta, the trafficked foreign children are forced to serve as nannies, housekeepers, shop attendants, head loaders, hawkers, and employed to do odd jobs in the informal sector. In the characteristic manner of trafficking, the conditions of labour are slave-like with little or no benefits to the trafficked children. Some of the family members benefit disproportionately to the traffickers who make most of the profit in the illegal trade. Most of the middle class homes in city centres are found to engage children as domestics and the streets are filled with children hawkers and head loaders, most of who are trafficked children from within and outside Nigeria.
Root factors and social implications of trafficking in children
With the dwindling economy especially since the misrule of the military regime in Nigeria came the unprecedented escalation of engagement of children in labour. The labour industry, particularly the informal sector, have been fed by the trafficking trade. Some of the root factors for the reenactment of this modern form of slavery have been attributed to poverty and its attendant consequences. Other factors include the devaluation of the local currency, which has made the acquisition of foreign exchange more attractive. In addition the fallen standard of family values, lack of parental control and general avarice for wealth have contributed immensely to the escalation of the illegal trade of trafficking.
The social implications are manifold on the development of the nation. As the subjection of children to slave-like labour, some of which are the worst forms of labour, has seriously impaired the growth and development of Nigerian children who are the bedrock of the society. The trafficked children are denied education, basic standard of living and fundamental human rights, dignity and freedom in negation of the Nigerian Constitution and International Instruments for the protection of the rights of the child.
In fact, the low level of the societal perception of children in Nigeria makes Nigerians readily accept and ignore the criminality of trafficking of children for forced labour. Undoubtedly trafficking of human beings is a heinous crime according to Nigerian and International Laws. Unfortunately there has not been any recorded arrest and successful prosecution to conviction of any trafficker. In reality, the traffickers of children for forms of labour other than prostitution are not regarded as criminals, hence there is no record of any arrest of traffickers of children for domestic labour.
Earthspring international Outreach (EIO) is a not-for-profit, faith-based, charity, non-political and civil organization in partnership with the Vincentian Fathers, aka, Congregation of the Mission. The Organization was founded in 2008 and registered in Corporate Affairs Commission of Nigeria with registration no. RC 57999.
With a team of result-driven Board of Trustees and committed management and staff, Earthspring is positioned to making a difference in the areas of health, education, human rights advocacy, environment deliverables, prisoners’ welfare and rehabilitation, mother and child protection, countering trafficking in person, youth development and those socially excluded and displaced due to conflict and wars.
Oilspills, dessertification and loss of natural habitat all constitutes some of Nigerias greatest environmental challenges.
You might remember the Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska in 1989. If not, this was one of the worst oil spills in history. In the Niger Delta there has been an Exxon Valdez spill every year for 50 years. This gives the Niger Delta the unpleasant honor of being one of the most polluted places on earth.
More than 70 percent of the people of the Niger Delta rely on natural resources. They are fishermen and farmers. In 2011 the UN Environmental Program (UNEP) documented the consequences of oil pollution in Ogoniland, one part of the delta severely damaged by spills.
UNEP found that people in Ogoniland have lived with chronic pollution all their lives. They found benzene levels 900 times higher than the World Health Organization recommendations. And they found oil in the soil five meters below the surface. UNEP recommends establishing a fund of one billion USD to start the largest clean-up in history.
The worst offenders of the Niger Delta are the oil companies Shell and ENI. These companies report more than 600 spills each year. They claim quick and proper response to the spills, but the UNEP report shows that this is not the reality.
Friends of the Earth Norway demands a fair and proper clean-up of the Niger Delta. We are also asking the Norwegian sovereign wealth fund to divest from Shell and ENI if the clean-up is not implemented. This work is done in collaboration with our partners in Environmental Rights Action Nigeria.
More than 65 percent of Nigerians live of nature and its goods. Farming, fisheries, logging and manufacturing are all examples of this. 70-80 percent of Nigerias original forests have dissapeared through logging, agriculture, city expansion, expansion of roads and building of industry. This has led to loss of plants and animals that depend on these forests. With the expected consequences of climate change these losses are expected to increase.
Nigeria has an organized system of nature preserves, game reserves, and national parks in addition to a forest management system, but most management is carried on at the state level. Law enforcement and protected system infrastructure are lacking, and abuses of protected land are common. Nigeria cooperates with Cameroon, Chad, and Niger in the joint management of wildlife in the Lake Chad Basin. The country also participates in the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.
In many parts of the country, farmers have practiced environmental protection for centuries. Their techniques include planting several different crops in a single field at once to cover the ground more evenly and thereby reduce erosion and increase fertility; planting and maintaining farmland trees and hedgerows to reduce erosion; applying manure to farmland to maintain soil fertility; and, in certain areas such as the Jos Plateau, terracing steep slopes.
Desertification is a major problem in Nigeria, made worse by massive water impoundment and irrigation schemes. Estimates say that Nigeria is losing 0.6 kilometers of land to desertification each year.
Earthspring International Abuja - This year's International Women's Day (March 😎 is a global day celebrating the social, economic, cultural, and political achievements of women. The day also marks a call to action for accelerating women's equality.
IWD has occurred for well over a century, with the first IWD gathering in 1911 supported by over a million people. Today, IWD belongs to all groups collectively everywhere. IWD is not country, group or organization specific.